- Open Access
Estrogen level monitoring in artificial frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles using step-up regime without pituitary suppression: is it necessary?
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Assisted Reproduction volume 5, Article number: 4 (2008)
To discuss the meaning of serum oestradiol monitoring in frozen embryo transfer cycle using hormone replacement without pretreatment with gonadotropin hormone (GnRH) agonist.
The data from two hundred twelve women undergoing two hundred seventy-four frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles was included in this retrospective cohort study. They were detected of serum oestradiol levels and endometrium thicknesses during hormone supplement FET cycles and compared their pregnancy outcomes according to their oestradiol level on progesterone initiation day.
Patients with different levels of serum oestradiol (percentile 0–25th, 25th–75th and 75th–100th) on progesterone initiation day yielded the endometrium thickness of 9.3 ± 0.12, 8.9 ± 0.07 and 9.1 ± 0.11 mm(P > 0.05) and the pregnancy rate of 32.2%, 38.4% and 36.3% (P > 0.05) respectively.
The serum estradiol level did not predict pregnancy success in hormone replacement FET cycles, suggesting that oestradiol monitoring in this method of endometrial preparation is unnecessary.
Simon A, Hurwitz A, Pharhat M, Revel A, Zentner BS, Laufer N: A flexible protocol for artificial preparation of the endometrium without prior gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist suppression in women with functioning ovaries undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. Fertil Steril. 1999, 71: 609-613. 10.1016/S0015-0282(98)00539-1.
Lelaidier C, de Ziegler D, Gaetano J, Hazout A, Fernandez H, Frydman R: Controlled preparation of the endometrium with exogenous oestradiol and progesterone: a novel regimen not using a gonadotrophinreleasing hormone agonist. Hum Reprod. 1992, 7: 1353-1356.
Queenan JT, Ramey JW, Seltman HJ, Eure L, Veeck LL, Muasher SJ: Transfer of cryopreserved-thawed pre-embryos in a cycle using exogenous steroids without prior gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist suppression yields favourable pregnancy results. Hum Reprod. 1997, 12: 1176-80. 10.1093/humrep/12.6.1176.
Simon A, Hurwitz A, Zentner BS, Bdolah Y, Laufer N: Transfer of frozen-thawed embryos in artificially prepared cycles with and without prior onadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist suppression: a prospective randomized study. Hum Reprod. 1998, 13: 2712-7.
EI-Toukhy T, Taylor A, Khalaf Y, Al-Darazi K, Rowell P, Seed P, Braude P: Pituitray suppression in ultrasound-monitored frozen embryo replacement cycles. A randomized study. Hum Reprod. 2004, 19: 874-879. 10.1093/humrep/deh183.
Testart J, Lassalle B, Belaisch-Allart J, Hazout A, Forman R, Rainborn JD, Frydman R: High pregnancy rate after early human embryo freezing. Fertil Steril. 1986, 46: 268-72.
Cohen J, DeVane GW, Elsner CW, Kort HI, Massey JB, Norbury SE: Cryopreserved zygotes and embryos and endocrinologic factors in the replacement cycle. Fertil Steril. 1988, 50: 61-7.
Muasher SJ, Kruithoff C, Simonetti S, Oehninger S, Acosta AA, Jones GS: Controlled preparation of the endometrium with exogenous steroids for the transfer of frozen-thawed pre-embryos in patients with anovulatory or irregular cycles. Hum Reprod. 1991, 6: 443-5.
Schmidt CL, de Ziegler D, Gagliardi CL, Mellon RW, Taney FH, Kuhar MJ: Transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos: the natural cycle versus controlled preparation of the endometrium with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and exogenous estradiol and progesterone (GEEP). Fertil Steril. 1989, 52: 609-16.
Remohi J, Vidal A, Pellicer A: Oocyte donation in low responders to conventional qvatian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1993, 59: 1208-15.
Navot D, Bergh PA, Williams M, Garrisi GJ, Guzman I, Sandler B, Fox J, Schreiner-Engel P, Hofmann GE, Grunfeld L: An insight into early reproductive processes through the in vivo model of ovum donation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991, 72: 408-414.
Borini A, Dal Prato L, Bianchi L, Violini F, Cattoli M, Flamigni C: Effect of duration of estradiol replacement on the outcome of oocyte donation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2001, 18: 187-92. 10.1023/A:1009472416305.
Devroey P, Pados G: Preparation of endometrium for egg donation. Hum Reprod Update. 1998, 4: 856-861. 10.1093/humupd/4.6.856.
Banz C, Katalinic A, Al-Hasani S, Seelig AS, Weiss JM, Diedrich K, Ludwig M: Preparation of cycles for cryopreservation transfers using estradiol patches and Crinonew 8% vaginal gel is effective and does not need any monitoring. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002, 103: 43-47. 10.1016/S0301-2115(02)00004-0.
Remohi J, Ardiles G, Garcia-Velasco JA, Gaitan P, Simon C, Pellicer A: Endometrial thickness and serum oestradiol concentrations as predictors of outcome in oocyte donation. Hum Reprod. 1997, 12: 2271-6. 10.1093/humrep/12.10.2271.
Ghosh D, Sengupta J: Another look at the issue of periimplantation oestrogen. Hum Reprod. 1995, 10: 1-2.
Ghosh D, De Pngupta J: Luteal phase ovarian oestrogen is not essential for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy from surrogate embryo transfer in the rhesus monkey. Hum Reprod. 1994, 9: 629-637.
Edgar DH: Oestrogen and human implantation. Hum Reprod. 1995, 10: 2-3.
DeZiegler D: Hormonal control of endometrial receptivity. Hum Reprod. 1995, 10: 4-7.
Simon C, Gimeno MJ, Mercader A, Frances A, Garcia VJ, Remohi J, Polan ML, Pellicer : Cytokines-adhesion molecules-invasive proteinases. The missing paracrine/autocrine link in embryonic implantation. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996, 2: 405-424. 10.1093/molehr/2.6.405.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Niu, Z., Feng, Y., Sun, Y. et al. Estrogen level monitoring in artificial frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles using step-up regime without pituitary suppression: is it necessary? . J Exp Clin Assist Reprod 5, 4 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-1050-5-4